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PARAMECIUM 
(Everything you need to know about paramecium - and more.)


WHAT IS A PARAMECIUM?

A paramecium is a small one celled (unicellular) living organism that can move, digest food, and reproduce. They belong to the kingdom of Protista, which is a group (family) of similar living micro-organisms.  Micro-organism means they are a very small living cell. You might be able to see one as a tiny moving speck if your eyesight is extremely good but for any detail at all you need a microscope to look at and study them.  They are about .02 inches long (.5mm). They are also famous for their predator-prey relationship with Didinium. Paramecium are known for their avoidance behavior. If an encounters a negative stimiulus, it is capable of rotating up to 360 degrees to find an escape route. Didinium are heterotrophic organisms. They only have one type of prey; the much larger cilate Paramecium. When a Didinium finds a Paramecium, it ejects poison darts (trichocysts) and attachment lines. The Didinium then proceeds to engulf its prey. Although Paramecium are larger than they are, Didinium are voracious eaters and will be ready to hunt for another meal after only a few hours.

WHAT DOES A PARAMECIUM LOOK LIKE?

The paramecium is an oval, slipper shaped micro-organism, rounded at the front/top and pointed at the back/bottom. The pellicle, a stiff but elastic membrane that gives the paramecium a definite shape but allows some small changes. Covering the pellicle are many tiny hairs, called cilia. On the side beginning near the front end and continuing half way down is the oral groove. The rear opening is called the anal pore. The contractile vacuole and the radiating canals are also found on the outside of a paramecium.  Inside the paramecium is cytoplasm, trichocysts, the gullet, food vacuoles, the macronucleus, and the micronucleus.  Study the drawing below.

                                        

Pellicle - a membrane covering that protects the paramecium like skin
Cilia - hair like appendages that help the paramecium move food into the oral groove
Oral Groove - collects and directs food into the cell mouth
Cell Mouth - opening for food
Anal Pore - disposes of waste
Contractile Vacuole - contracts and forces extra water out of the cell
Radiating Canals - paths to the contractile vacuole
Cytoplasm - intercellular fluid needed to contain vital cell parts
Trichocyst - used for defense
Gullet - forms food vacuoles
Food Vacuole - storage pocket for food
Macronucleus - larger nucleus which performs normal cell functions
Micronucleus - smaller nucleus which is responsible for cell division.

Now look at the still microscope image below and see if you can pick out the various paramecium parts.

PARAMECIUM ON 101SCIENCE.COMImage courtesy: BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES
The paramecium, genus of protozoa of the phylum Ciliophora, is often called slipper animalcules because of their slipper-like shape. Paramecia are unicellular organisms usually less than 0.25 mm (0.01 in) in length and covered with minute hair-like projections called cilia. Cilia are used in locomotion and during feeding. When moving through the water, paramecia follow a spiral path while rotating on the long axis. When a paramecium encounters an obstacle, it exhibits the so-called avoidance reaction: It backs away at an angle and starts off in a new direction. Paramecia feed mostly on bacteria, which are driven into the gullet by the cilia. Two contractile vacuoles regulate osmotic pressure (see  Osmosis) and also serve as excretory structures. A paramecium has a large nucleus called a macronucleus, without which it cannot survive, and one or two small nuclei called micronuclei, without which it cannot reproduce sexually. Reproduction is usually asexual by transverse binary fission, occasionally sexual by conjugation, and rarely by endomixis, a process involving total nuclear reorganization of individual organisms.  Macronuclear DNA in Paramecium has a very high gene density. The macronucleus can contain up to 800 copies of each gene.  Paramecia abound in freshwater ponds throughout the world; one species lives in marine waters. They are easily cultivated in the laboratory by allowing vegetable matter to stand in water for a few days. The common species Paramecium caudatum is widely used in research.


HOW DOES A PARAMECIUM MOVE?

The paramecium swims by beating the cilia. The paramecium moves by spiraling through the water on an invisible axis. For the paramecium to move backward, the cilia simply beat forward on an angle.   If the paramecium runs into a solid object the cilia change direction and beat forward, causing the paramecium to go backward. The paramecium turns slightly and goes forward again. If it runs into the solid object again it will repeat this process until it can get past the object.  See: http://nonlocal.com/hbar/paramecium.html

You Tube Video of moving Paramecium
How does a paramecium move and process information?
Paramecium
BioMEDIA Classics - Paramecium behavior
Paramecium
What is Paramecium?
Sample Descriptive Lab Report
Paramecium Lab
MSN Encarta - Multimedia - Paramecium Anatomy
Ciliophora: ciliates, move with cilia
BI97Life\BI97Temp\BI97Temp

HOW DOES A PARAMECIUM EAT?

Paramecium feed on microorganisms like bacteria, algae, and yeasts. The paramecium uses its cilia to sweep the food along with some water into the cell mouth after it falls into the oral groove. The food goes through the cell mouth into the gullet. When there is enough food in it so that it has reached a certain size it breaks away and forms a food vacuole. The food vacuole travels through the cell, through the back end first. As it moves along enzymes from the cytoplasm enter the vacuole and digest it. The digested food then goes into the cytoplasm and the vacuole gets smaller and smaller. When the vacuole reaches the anal pore the remaining undigested waste is removed.  Paramecium may eject trichocyts when they detect food, in order to better capture their prey. These trichocyts are filled with protiens. Trichocysts can also be used as a method of self-defense.  Paramecium are heterotrophs. Their common form of prey is bacteria. A single organism has the ability to eat 5,000 bacteria a day. They are also known to feed on yeasts, algae, and small protozoa. Paramecium capture their prey through phagocytosis.

 

BioMEDIA Classics Paramecium feeding
Parameciums
Paramecium Coloring
Paramecium and fish fry food as well as food for larvae newts
[PDF] Competition 1. What is competition? 2. Intra-specific competition 
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euglena
Paramecium

WHAT SENSES DO PARAMECIUM HAVE?
The paramecium can not see, taste, touch, or hear.  However, It evidently has some sense of  movement because it responds when it bumps into something.  It also can sense certain chemicals, as noted in: Chemosensory Signal Transduction in Paramecium

HOW DO PARAMECIUM REPRODUCE?

Paramecium are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is the most common, and this is accomplished by the organism dividing transversely. The macronucleus elongates and splits. Under ideal conditions, Paramecium can reproduce asexually two or three times a day. Normally, Paramecium only reproduce sexually under stressful conditions. This occurs via gamete agglutination and fusion. Two Paramecium join together and their respective micronuclei undergo meiosis. Three of the resulting nuceli disintegrate, the fourth undergoes mitosis. Daughter nuclei fuse and the cells separate. The old macronucleus disintegrates and a new one is formed. This process is usually followed by asexual reproduction.

WHERE DO PARAMECIUM LIVE?

Paramecium live in aquatic environments, usually in stagnant, warm water. The species Paramecium bursaria forms symbiotic relationships with green algae. The algae live in its cytoplasm. Algal photosynthesis provides a food source for Paramecium. Some species form relationships with bacteria. For example, Paramecium caudatum hosts Holospora obtusa in its macronucleus. This bacteria is specific to the macronucleus of Paramecium caudatum; they cannot grow outside of this organism. This species acquires heat-shock resistance when infected with Holospora obtusa, which contributes to ciliary motion. Paramecium are also well known as prey for Didinium.

Paramecia play a role in the carbon cycle because the bacteria they eat are often found on decaying plants. Paramecium will eat the decaying plant matter in addition to the bacteria, further aiding decomposition.

Paramecia can be used as model organisms in research. Currently, they are being used a great deal in genetics research. For example, recent research involves inactivating Paramecium genes for studying functional analysis by homology-dependent gene silencing. They can also be used to study membrane excitability and the duplication of basal bodies.

CAN PARAMECIUM COMMUNICATE?

Read about this experimentation of the ability of a paramecium caudatum communicating through glass.  Daniel Fels documents the interactions among different populations of a single-celled ciliate, Paramecium caudatum, seperated by glass.  Because the glass barriers effectively prohibit the transfer of chemical signals, Fels infers that these simple organisms are using a form of weak electromagnetic radiation, so-called biophotons, to communicate.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005086

WHAT ARE SOME PARAMECIUM RELATIONSHIPS IN NATURE:

PREY/FOOD
PREDATORS
SHELTER
OTHER

Green Algae

Amoeba

Yellow Pond Lily

Green Algae

Amoeba

Water Flea

Common Duckweed

 

Bacteria

Eastern Lamp Mussel

Pickerelweed

 

Euglena

Golden Shiner

Common Cattail

 
 

Euglena

Hydrilla

 
 

Greater Bladderwort

Long-leaf Pondweed

 
 

Black Crappie

Greater Bladderwort

 
 

Rotifer

   
 

Copepod

   
 

Scud

   
 

Predatory Nematode

   
 

Flatworm

  Didinium

WHAT IS THE DETAILED PARAMECIUM TAXONOMY?

The super kingdoms are:  1. Prokaryotae and 2. Eukaryotae.) 
The kingdoms are
: 1.  Plants  2.  Fungi   3.  Animals   4.  Protoctista   5.  Bacteria   (See *NOTE: below)
The next level of the family tree under each of these kingdoms is called
"Phyla". The plural of  phylum is phyla.  The animal (animalia) kingdom for example is divided into approximately 38 smaller phyla branches of the tree.  The next levels down the tree are "Class", Subclass", "Order", "Suborder", "Family", "Genus", and "Species".   

Lets see how this would look for the "Paramecium" which is a common pond microscopic animal. 

(ITIS)

Super Kingdom Eukaryotae
Kingdom
  Animalia  (Protista - Protozoa - * see
*NOTE: below)
   Phylum
  Ciliophora
     
Class  Ciliatea
      
  Subclass  Rhabdophorina
          
Order  Hymenostomatida
           
  Suborder  Peniculina
              
Family  Parameciidae
               
  Genus  Paramecium
                   
Species  aurelia, bursaria, caudatum ..............

*NOTE:  The reference for this information is from Volume 1 of "Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms" by Sybil P. Parker, 1982, McGraw Hill. The following is extracted from that publication.  

"The classification used in these volumes recognized four kingdoms (Virus, Monera, Plantae, and Animalia) arranged in two superkingdoms - the Prokaryotae and the Eukaryotae.  Almost all workers agree that these two superkingdoms reflect a basic difference in organization of living organisms.  Decision on this arrangement is based on a compromise between the most useful groups and the highest degree of monophyly of these taxa.  The kingdoms recognized herein and some of the subkingdoms are still minimally mono phyletic.  Many workers will disagree with certain aspects of this classification, especially not recognizing the Protista.  Although this four-kingdom system advocated herein has the greatest advantage, the differences between it and some other systems, such as a five kingdom system recognizing Protistia, are not significant."

There are many species of the Genus Paramecium.  Three of them are Paramecium aurelia,  Paramecium bursaria, and the  Paramecium caudatum.  Notice that the first part of the name (Genus) is capitalized and the second (Species) name is not.  That is the standard way to write the names.  These names are similar to your name - they specify you in particular.  You wouldn't be expected to know the names of every person in your country so don't expect to memorize all the various species as there are millions of them.  Just concentrate on a few like you do your family and friends names.  If you want to search a taxonomy data base try this list of taxonomy databases:  Full: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=taxonomy  Fish:  www.fishbase.net

FIND OUT ABOUT PARAMECIUM GENE RESEARCH

http://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/6219.html

WHERE ARE PARAMECIUM RESEARCH LABS?

LEARN ABOUT PARAMECIUM WITH THESE TUTORIALS
invertebrates
Cells and Microscopy
Protista Tutorials
Dense-core secretory vesicle docking and exocytotic membrane 
Biology 104 - 7A Paramecium Osmoregulation
Microscopes
International Paramecium Genomics Meeting
P2b -Tutorial 3
B332 Lab - Ciliates II


PARAMECIUM AURELIA
[PDF] Distribution of Species of the Paramecium aurelia Complex in Israel
[PDF] Data on the occurrence of species of the Paramecium aurelia 
Paramecium OF Muller, 1773 , , , Synonym; Paramaecium OF Muller
Prof. Dr Ewa Przyboś - Distribution of the Paramecium aurelia
Paramecium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
paramecium: Definition and Much More From Answers.com
Kappa and other endosymbionts in Paramecium aurelia.
CORTICAL ULTRASTRUCTURE OF PARAMECIUM AURELIA: Studies on Isolated
Ciliate (Paramecium aurelia) Chemical Toxicity Studies[DOC] PRZYBOŚ E
Studies on The Limitation of a Natural Population of Paramecium 
Sonneborn Mss. Writings
Coexistence in Laboratory Populations of Paramecium Aurelia and 
[PDF] Protistology Finding of Paramecium dodecaurelia in Europe
Sonneborn Mss. Printed Materials
Soldo, AT, GA Godoy, and WJ Van Wagtendonk; 1966. Growth of
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Paramecium
[PDF] FOR TEACHERS ONLY LE
Kappa and other endosymbionts in Paramecium aurelia
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PARAMECIUM BURSARIA
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Paramecium bursaria
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Bursaria
This image of two Paramecium bursaria displays the symbiotic
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Paramecium Bursaria Size
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Paramecium bursaria conjugation
DanforthCenter.org
[PDF] Complete Elimination of Endosymbiotic Algae from Paramecium
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Protist Images: Paramecium bursaria
Microscope - information about microbes
Chimera Image Gallery
Viruses of Symbiotic Chlorella-Like Algae Isolated from Paramecium 
[PDF] A natural strain of Paramecium bursaria lacking symbiotic algae
Protist Images: Paramecium bursaria
Paramecium OF Muller, 1773 , , , Synonym; Paramaecium OF Muller
SCOP: Protein: PBCV-1 virus capsid, quasi-atomic model from 
[PDF] Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Hexavalent Chromium in Green
[PDF] A bacteria-free monoxenic culture of Paramecium bursaria : its growth
Photosensitive Signal Transduction to Induce Membrane 

PARAMECIUM CALKINSKI
Extraction of a Mating Reaction Inhibiting Agent from Paramecium 
[PDF] <Emphasis Type="Italic">Paramecium calkinsi </Emphasis> and ... 
Osmotic Tolerance of Ca-Dependent Excitability in the Marine 
Marine ciliate (Paramecium calkinsi) Chemical Toxicity Studies
JSTOR: Extraction of a Mating Reaction Inhibiting Agent from
[Effect of actinomycin D on salinity acclimation of Paramecium 
[PDF] OSMOTIC TOLERANCE OF Ca-DEPENDENT EXCITABILITY IN THE MARINE
JSTOR: The Life Cycle of Paramecium when Subjected to a Varied
[PDF] Paramecium caudafum
[PDF] FACTORS DETERMINING CONJUGATION PARAMECIUM AURELIA 11. GENETIC 
[PDF] INFECTION OF MACRONUCLEAR ANLAGEN OF PARAMECIUM CAUDATUM WITH THE
A study of the time course of recovery of Paramecium aurelia from
Woodruff LL, Moore EL Proc Natl Acad Sci US A. 1924 May; 10(5):183

PARAMECIUM CAUDATUM

Paramecium
Paramecium
MEDLINE Database, 1987 to date Document Reader
[PDF] Role of Germ Nuclei in Conjugation of Paramecium caudatum
WARD'S Natural Science: Paramecium Caudatum Cultures
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Paramecium caudatum
Ciliates
Ciliate (Paramecium caudatum) Chemical Toxicity Studies
Live Paramecium 1
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Age-associated change in macronuclear DNA content in Paramecium 

PARAMECIUM DUBOSCQUI

paramecium of muller 1773 synonym paramaecium of muller
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[PDF] PUBLICATIONS Articles (first author) STOECK T, EPSTEIN S ...
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[PDF] The Genus Caedibacter Comprises Endosymbionts of Paramecium spp
[PDF] Nuclear Reorganization Variety in Paramecium (Ciliophora ...
Blackwell Synergy: J Eukaryotic Microbiology, Vol 47, Issue 4, pp 
[PDF] Czech Section Society of Protozoo1ogists 29th Annua1 Meeting May
Fok, A., and RD Allen; 1979. Axenic Paramecium caudatum. 1: Mass 
[PDF] 475-480 Fokin - 940c
Protist: Paramecium duboscqui - [ Translate this page ]
[PDF] Czech Section Society of Protozoo1ogists 29th Annua1 Meeting May
Isolation of Virulence Genes Directing Surface Glycosyl 
HistCite - main: Russell, DG
adeno-associated virus 2 aav2 antarctic bacterium ds2-3r abies ...
GeneProductClass - [ Translate this page ]
FlyBase GadFly Genome Annotation Database
[PDF] Mitochondrial Gene Arrangement Source Guide
[PDF] South Scandinavian Marine Protoctista South Scandinavian Marine ...
!Kung "cotton-roll" gingivitides "cotton-roll" gingivitis "locked ...
Organism #articles 'Chlorella' ellipsoidea 8 'Chlorella' fusca 1 ...

PARAMECIUM JENNINGSI

[PDF] Sibling Species Within Paramecium jenningsi Revealed by RAPD
Random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting as a marker for
[DOC] PRZYBOŚ E
[PDF] PARAMECIUM TETRAURELIA JENNINGS ECKERT FRIEDMAN We P. KUNG al.
Sex Reaction Types and Their Interrelations in Paramecium bursaria ...
www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/24/3/112 

Guide to APS Genetics Collections
[PDF] ON THE REACTIONS OF ISOLATED PARTS OF PARAMECIUM CAUDATUM
THE GENIC CONTROL OF MATING TYPES IN PARAMECIUM BURSARIA*
[PDF] A TEMPORAL SEQUENCE FOR GENIG EXPRESSION: CELL DIFFERENTIATION IN
Swimbase

PARAMECIUM MULTIMICRONUCLEATUM

Protist Images: Paramecium multimicronucleatum
How does the contractile vacuole of Paramecium multimicronucleatum
Nikon Small World - Gallery
Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc Scientific Stock Photography
THE FINE STRUCTURE OF CORTICAL COMPONENTS OF PARAMECIUM
Mutation in the Protozoan Paramecium multimicronucleatum as a 
Paramecium
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Protist Images: Paramecium multimicronucleatum
How does the contractile vacuole of Paramecium multimicronucleatum
THE FINE STRUCTURE OF CORTICAL COMPONENTS OF PARAMECIUM 
Paramecium
Nikon Small World - Gallery
Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc Scientific Stock Photography 
Recovery of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum following 

PARAMECIUM POLYCARYUM

CYTOLOGICAL AND CYTOGENETICAL STUDIES ON PARAMECIUM POLYCARYUM. V
Paramecium OF Muller, 1773 , , , Synonym; Paramaecium OF Muller 
Acta Protozool
Protist Images: Paramecium
JSTOR: Ciliary Arrangement in Different Species of Paramecium
Ciliophora
BIOONE Online Journals - Phylogenetic Relationships of the 
Paramecium polycaryum
Department of Invertebrate Zoology. St.Petersburg State University 
[PDF] Eukaryotic (ie protistan) Systemaics & Genomics
Eukaryotes
Journal of The Lepidopterists' Society (JLS): 1964-18(2)119 
A'Hearn AHearn ASCII ASP Aaltje Aarhus Aaronson Aaryn Aase
[PDF] Untitled
Annual Report 2005
GeneProductClass

PARAMECIUM PUTRINUM

Paramecium
Entities
paramecium of muller 1773 synonym paramaecium of muller
Ciliate (Paramecium putrinum) Chemical Toxicity Studies
[Processes of conjugation in Paramecium putrinum Clap. and Lachm 
JSTOR: Enzyme Patterns in Paramecium putrinum Claparede and Lachmann
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ExpertRating - Paramecium Quiz, Paramecium Facts Quiz
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ON THE TOXIC ACTION OF OPIUM ALKALOIDS INDIVIDUALLY AND IN 
Blackwell Synergy: J Eukaryotic Microbiology, Vol 49, Issue 4, pp
JSTOR: Cytoskeletal Components of Frontonia depressa (Ciliophora 
BIOONE Online Journals - Phylogenetic Relationships of the
[PDF] THE INFLUENCE OF THYROID EXTRACTS AND THYROXIN ON THE RATE OF
Microscope - information about microbes
Paramecium putrinum
Figure 1
Resources
Paramecium putrinum - Relationships - The Taxonomicon
The Bay Paul Center Portal
The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
[Effect of local UV irradiation of the generative nucleus on the
Paramecium putrinum - Hierarchy - The Taxonomicon
[PDF] <Emphasis Type="Italic">Paramecium calkinsi </Emphasis> and ... - 2:54am
[PDF] Ciliated protozoa of a geothermal sulphur spring
Accumulation of selenium in a model freshwater microbial food web
[Conjugation processes in Paramecium putrinum Clap. et Lachm. VI
Ciliophora
[PDF] Nuclear Reorganization Variety in Paramecium (Ciliophora 
Reference (Ref ID : 4900-4999)

PARAMECIUM TRICKUM

An abbreviated conjugation process in Paramecium trichium.
[PDF] The structure and division of paramecium trichium stokes
Paramecium OF Muller, 1773 , , , Synonym; Paramaecium OF Muller 
Regional differentiation of cortical structures and their
JSTOR: Eight Well-Defined Species of Paramecium (Protozoa, Ciliata)
[PDF] The structure of Ciliated Protozoa communities in biological
[PDF] Seasonality of planktonic ciliated protozoa in 20 subtropical 
JSTOR: Ciliary Arrangement in Different Species of Paramecium
Protist Images: Paramecium
[Cytophotometric interpretation of micronuclear phenomena during 
Paramecium
Science/AAAS | Table of Contents: 8 June 1934; 79 (2058)
Paramecium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Microscopes
[PDF] JHS 49(6)429-435
J.Health Sci., 49(6), 429-435, 2003 Use of Paramecium Species in 
[PDF] Development of surface pattern during division in Paramecium
The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 45/4
JCB -- Table of Contents (36 [3])
[PDF] Unusual distribution of mitochondrial large subunit rRNA in the 
[PDF] Inhibition of early events of sexual processes in Paramecium by
Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science
Biology and physiology of the lower Trypanosomatidae.
ชื่อเรื่องวิจัย
IWFmedienkatalog


 PARAMECIUM: SCHOLARS WEB SITES

Note:  Some of the full text information is free and some requires a fee from the publisher, but there is a lot of free abstract information as well.


Cryptomonas paramaecium - Elongate ovate cell, broader anteriorly than posteriorly, slightly concave, measuring 14-28 µm long. With two flagella equal in length and slightly shorter than cell length inserting subapically near the opening of a pocket that extends almost to half the length of the cell and is lined by refractile ejectisomes. Viewed laterally, dorsal anterior portion of cell is more prominent, and is the site of the contractile vacuole. Several refractile crystals may also be present in the cell. Body frequently with many starch grains. Usually observed resting with flagella against the substrate or actively swimming. Cell occasionally jumps backwards. This species has usually be referred to as Chilomonas paramecium, with Chilomonas being one of two heterotrophic genera of cryptomonads (the other being Goniomonas)

Paramecium - Peniculine ciliates. Buccal opening located at the base of a groove of channel that starts at the front of the cell. There are no specialised cilia in the groove, but there are 4 peniculi within the mouth. The body is evenly ciliated except at the posterior end where there is a tuft of longer cilia. Bodies are cylindrical or more truncated (foot-shaped). Body surface underlain with extrusomes (trichocysts). With a single large central macronucleus and one or more micronuclei. With two contractile vacuoles, in most species the contractile vacuoles have radiating collecting canals. One or two species have symbiotic green algae. Eat bacteria. Common and widespread in freshwater habitats. Traditional species distinguished by body shape and configuration of the nuclei � especially the micronuclei which may be single and large or small, vesiculate and more numerous. The paramecium aurelia-group has been subdivided into such distinct genetic species by Sonneborn in 1975; other species groups are likely to be subdivided in the future.

Paramecium bursaria - The green paramecium


Chilomonas paramecium - Chilomonas paramecium Ehrenberg, 1831. Colourless cryptomonads, with stiff elongate-ovate body, 19 to 30 microns long. Two subequal flagella, shorter than the length of the body, insert in an anterior pocket which is surrounded by rows of extrusomes. Small extrusomes are also visible under the cell membrane. The nucleus is located posteriorly to the pocket. A contractile vacuole is located anteriorly and empties into the pocket. Cells contain refractile storage products and often two refractile Maupas bodies. Cells rotate while swimming, and can also swim backwards.
Cryptomonas paramecium - This species used to be called Chilomonas paramecium. It is one of a small number of heterotrophic cryptomonads. Two flagella arise fron the anterior depression, at the base of which lies the contractile vacuole and a channel lined with ejectisomes. Body contains polysaccharise storage material and a refractile inorganic crystalline material.
Didinium - Portrait of Didinium nasutum, a barrel-shape haptorid ciliate with a conical anterior snout containing prominent extrusomes. Two ciliary girdles. Oral aperture forms anteriorly at the apex of the snout. Two ciliary girdles, one circumoral and the other equatorial . Posterior contractile vacuole. Macronucleus C-shaped or oblong. Fast swimmer. Fixes prey (often paramecium or Frontonia) with nontoxic extrusomes called pexicysts and kills them with toxicysts before engulfing them whole through enormously extensible oral aperture.Didinium may be confused with early dividing individuals of Monodinium. From freshwater pond with abundant Frontonia near Boise, Idaho.

Frontonia - Frontonia (front-own-ee-a) is a peniculine ciliate and as such is closely related to the familiar paramecium. It has many crystalline inclusions called trichocysts (a special form of extrusome). When stressed the crystalline structure of these changes, and they are expelled in large numbers and forceably from the cell. This action can force the cell away from the noxious stimulus. The expelled, the trichocysts look like little spears attached to the slide or to the substrate. 

Heliophrya - Heliophrya (heal-ee-owe-fry-a) is a stalkless suctorian, the body is a flattened disc to square shape, adpressed to the substrate, with contractile arms emerging in a number (usually 4) bundles. As can be seen here, food is caught on the ends of the arms, the arms act as mouths and the cytoplasm of the living prey (the prey is paramecium and the contractile vacuoles are still active) is sucked down the arms and into the suctorian. 

Holospora undulata - A mass of bacterial endosymbiont Holospora undulata (ex Hafkine, 1890) Gromov and Ossipov, 1981occupying the micronucleus of paramecium caudatum (Ehrenberg,1833).DIC. \
Homalozoon vermiculare - This guy lives in the High Sierras in California. He eats paramecium for a living.

Paramecium aurelia - paramecium (aurelia) (par-a-mee-see-um) is a very familiar genus of ciliates. They eat bacteria and have the mouth recessed in a buccal cavity, and the cell is often shaped with a scoop leading to the mouth. There are cilia all over the body with a caudal tuft of longer cilia at the back of the body. Usually with a layer of extrusomes (trichocysts) under the cell surface and a large oval macronucleus. Contractile vacuoles star-shaped. This species is P. aurelia, one of the smaller spindle-shaped (morpho)species. The (morpho) species is best distinguished by the presence of two small micronuclei pressed up against the macronucleus. Phase contrast.

Paramecium bursaria - paramecium (bursaria) (par-a-mee-see-um) is a very familiar genus of ciliates. They eat bacteria and have the mouth recessed in a buccal cavity, and the cell is often shaped with a scoop leading to the mouth. There are cilia all over the body with a caudal tuft of longer cilia at the back of the body. Usually with a layer of extrusomes (trichocysts) under the cell surface and a large oval macronucleus. Contractile vacuoles star-shaped. This species is P. bursaria, a species with symbiotic green algae living inside. P

Paramecium caudatum - paramecium (caudatum) (par-a-mee-see-um) is a very familiar genus of ciliates. They eat bacteria and have the mouth recessed in a buccal cavity, and the cell is often shaped with a scoop leading to the mouth. There are cilia all over the body with a caudal tuft of longer cilia at the back of the body. Usually with a layer of extrusomes (trichocysts) under the cell surface and a large oval macronucleus. Contractile vacuoles star-shaped. This species is P. caudatum, and was photographed with the cell pushing itself into some debris. This is the normal feeding behaviour of this genus. Phase contrast.

Paramecium jenningsi - paramecium fed with dead bacteria stained red and with some indian ink added, such that food vacuoles form that are red and black in colour. These are normal sized food vacuoles (compare with the paramecia that have been fed with yeast cells). The mouth cilia form the dark band located near the middle of the cell. The macronucleus is anterior, a contractile vacuole with radiating collecting canals and expanded ampullae is evident in the back of the cell. The posterior end of the cell has a tuft of caudal cilia that are longer than the cilia over the rest of the body.

Paramecium multimicronucleatum - Dictyosome (Golgi apparatus) showing that ribosomes are attached to the cytosolic side of the transition zone of the ER. COP-II coats presumably allow the ER membrane to accumulate protein cargo and to evaginate (arrowheads) into a pit which will pinch off into transition vesicles. These then fuse with the Golgi stack which in paramecia consists of only two or three cisternae. Glycosylation of the proteins may occur in the cisternae which may target the proteins to lysosomes, to the plasma membrane, or to the endosomal system. paramecium does not have sialic acid as the terminal sugar of its complex carbohydrate as part of its glycosylated proteins and lipids. Bar = 0.1 microns. This image is available in Richard Allen's collection.


PARAMECIUM LINKS

General:http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/articles/param1.html
Paramecium, the lowly fellers http://www.broward.edu/~ssimpson/JMDelvecchio-Paramecium.htm
Paramecium Purtrinum  http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/parameci.html
Paramecium 1
Paramecium 2

The Bug Farm - Live Culture Supplies  http://www.livefoodcultures.com/paramecium.html
A Parameciums' Defense Mechanism  http://www.expasy.ch/spotlight/articles/sptlt003.html
Studies on Paramecium  http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/studies/invertebrates/paramecium.html

Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus

Paramecium Protist Images!!

Osmoregulation in Paramecium
Paramecium Reference List

MICSCAPE - Article on Pond Life: Paramecium
Paramecium
Paramecium
Paramecium
BioMEDIA Classics - Paramecium introduction
Paramecium
Paramecium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paramecium
paramecium
Structure of a paramecium
Paramecium Model
Paramecium tetraurelia
Molecular Expressions Digital Video Gallery: Pond Life ...
Paramecium Illustration - protist picture by Russell Kightley Media 
Paramecium Genomics
Protist Images: Paramecium caudatum
Nikon MicroscopyU Movie Gallery: Paramecium (Protozoan)
Sofie's Web Page
Paramecium Lab
Paramecium - MicrobeWiki
Paramecium
paramecium
www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?sear...
Paramecium caudatum
Paramecium
BioMEDIA Classics - Paramecium feeding
paramecium. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Paramecium bursaria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ParameciumDB Pre-release
Paramecium - Droplet Photo Gallery - 3:09am
Protist Images: Paramecium
Paramecia are found in ponds and other quiet waters among the muck 
Protist Images: Paramecium aurelia complex: octaurelia
Molecular Expressions Digital Video Gallery: Pond Life
Blackstump Metal Night 2006
Paramecium Genome Browser
www.expasy.org/cgi-bin/get-entries?OC=Paramecium
What is Paramecium?
paramecium - Britannica Concise
CodeTree: Paramecium by bioscribe
Entities
Paramecium Coloring
How does a paramecium move and process information?
Paramecium - Biocrawler
Paramecium on Flickr - Photo Sharing!
Paramecium by phase contrast
Paramecium Bursaria Size
Paramecium bursaria
Paramecium caudatum
paramecium: Definition and Much More From Answers.com
Paramecium
Nikon MicroscopyU: Phase Contrast Image Gallery - Paramecium
Details: Paramecium Homeostasis Gizmo | ExploreLearning
Rox Populi: The Conjugation of the Paramecium
Paramecium - MSN Encarta
Molecular Expressions Digital Video Gallery: Pond Life
The Exploring Science Site
IMMEX
Paramecium Aurelia
Paramecium
Osmoregulation in Paramecium.
51.0.1.1. 1-Paramecium bursaria Chlorella NC64A virus group
Microscope - information about microbes
Halfbakery: Paramecium Farm
Paramecium and fish fry food as well as food for larvae newts|
PhysOrgForum Science, Physics and Technology Discussion ForumsThe Paramecium Complex - AGS Games Database
Paramecium OF Muller, 1773 , , , Synonym; Paramaecium OF Muller
International Paramecium Genomics Meeting
Ciliate (Paramecium caudatum) Chemical Toxicity Studies
Paramecium - Video - Motion.TV
Ciliate Image Database
www.kidsbiology.com/animals-for-children.php?anima...
Blesok34, sound reviews - Vasja Ivanovski: Paramecium

PARAMECIUM PHOTOS - IMAGES

P. aurelia        Ehrenberg, 1838  (Cigar Shaped)
P. bursaria     
(Ehrenberg) Focker, 1836 (Foot Shaped)
P. calkinsi      
Woodruff, 1921
P. caudatum  1.   2.   3.   4.  
Ehrenberg, 1838
P. duboscqui  
Chatton and Brachon, 1933
P. jenningsi    
Diller & Earl, 1958
P. multi-micronucleatum     
Powers & Mitchell, 1910
P. polycaryum 
Woodruff, 1923
P. primaurelia
P. putrinum
      Claparede & Lachmann, 1858
P. trichium  
      Stokes, 1885        
P. tetraurelia 

PARAMECIUM VIDEO - MOVIES

Microbiology Video Collection

1. Pond Life Digital Video Gallery | Paramecium (Protozoan)

2. Phase Contrast Image Gallery

3. Digital Image Galleries | Phase Contrast Image Gallery

4. Digital Image Galleries | Phase Contrast Image Gallery

5. Phase Contrast Image Gallery

6. Digital Image and Movie Galleries: Small World Competition

7. Digital Image and Video Galleries | Phase Contrast Image Gallery

8. Small World Competition | 2010

9. Small World Competition | 2010

 


PROTISTA TAXONOMY

Kingdom Protista
101 Taxonomy - www.101science.com
Systematics of the Eukaryota

UCMP Web Lift to Taxa

Protista Taxonomy

Protista Taxonomy

Biology of Animals & Plants - Classifying Living Things

IWS Image Library Taxonomy

Lab 1: Taxonomy/Protista/Porifera

taxonomy notes bI

JSTOR: Evolutionary Relationships among Protozoa.

JSTOR: Some Paradoxes in Taxonomy with Reference to the Protista

Protist - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Search results for research title

Kingdom Protista - Nomenclature & Taxonomy - The Taxonomicon

Biology 203 Lab

Amazon.com: Monerans & Protists (Taxonomy): Books: Dr.Alvin

Kingdom Protista

Introduction to the Protists

Diversity of Life Web Index

 (NCBI)

   Superkingdom

    Eukaryota

      ---                          

    Alveolata

         ---                     

    Ciliophora

              Class           

    Oligohymenophorea

               Order       

    Peniculida

                  Genus

    Paramecium

ALSO SEE OUR FULL TAXONOMY PAGE.

EUGLENA LINKS

euglena
The Euglenoid Project: Euglena, Euglenida, Euglenophyta ...
Euglenophyta, Euglena
Protist Images: Euglena
Euglena's Home Page.
euglena
Euglena - Wikipedia
ITIS Standard Report Page: Euglena
Nikon MicroscopyU Movie Gallery: Euglena rostrifera (Protozoan)

DAPHINIA LINKS

BM Gallery - Biology Classics: Daphnia
Environmental Inquiry - Bioassays Using Daphnia
New York Web Design - Daphnia
D.Ebert - Daphnia parasites
Background
Cladoceran Web Site: Cladoceran Taxonomy: Daphnia
Daphnia Genomics Consortium - Welcome
Daphnia 1
Daphnia 2
Daphnia 3


OTHER PROTISTS LINKS

PROTOZOA Some Common Freshwater Types

Algae www.bgsu.edu/departments/biology/algae/index.html
Slime molds www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/slimemolds.html
Protist genera megasun.bch.umontreal.ca/protists/protists.html
Resources on Protists 130.158.208.53/WWW/Protist_menuE.html
Red algae www.alphazee.com/a/algae/algae.html
Algae and Seaweed sseaweed.ucg.ie/seaweed.html
Fungi, algae and lichens www.nrm.se/kbo/

Cells Alive
Protist Image Data
Amoeba pictures
Paramecium caudatum pictures
Euglena pictures
Spirogyra pictures
Hydrodictyon pictures
Diatom pictures
Zygnema pictures
Volvox pictures
Vorticella pictures
Stentor pictures
Protista
Protista images
Microphotos
Protista: Pictures and Information
Fungi
Fungi Kingdom
Protista Internet Resources
Fungi Fun Facts
Protista Internet Resources

LINKS TO BIODIDAC  http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/Thumbnails/samples.htm

Protists

Chlorophyta Charophyceae Chlorophyceae Ulvophyceae
Ciliophora Kinetofragminophorea Oligohymenophorea Polyhymenophorea
Mastigophora Euglenophyta Pyrrhophyta Zoomastigophora
Myxomycota
Oomycota
Phaeophyta
Rhodophyta
Sarcodina Actinopoda Rhizopoda
Sporozoa Apicomplexa

If you have any problem accessing the above links go to their home page at: http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/


Protist MOVIES http://mtlab.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/WWW/Movies/htmls/index.html

NASA Microscope Web site
http://www.mbl.edu/microscope
Thanks to David Patterson for submitting information in this section.

The Book - A highly recommended freshwater protozoa guide!
 

Free-Living Freshwater Protozoa: A Color Guide
by David J. Patterson, S. Hedley (Illustrator)

Book Description
This color book makes the identification of individual protozoa easily accessible and provides information on protozoan communities found in different environments by means of a wealth of color photomicrographs supported by original and detailed line drawings and concise text.
  Contains excellent information for ecologists as well.

References

BioMedia. "The Classics of Biology: Paramecium.

Coleman, A.W. "Paramecium aurelia Revisited." The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology.

Fujishima, Masahiro, Miki Kawai, and Ryu Yamamoto. "Paramecium caudatum acquires heat-shock resistance in ciliary movement by infection with the endonuclear symbiotic bacterium Holospora obtusa." FEMS Microbiology Letters 243

Gerritsen, Vivienne Baillie. "The Arsenal of Paramecium." Protien Spotlight

Haselton, Aaron. "Paramecium putrinum." The Connecticut River Homepage.

Kawano T, Kadono T, Kosaka T, Hosoya H. "Green paramecia as an evolutionary winner of oxidative symbiosis: a hypothesis and supportive data." Z Naturforsch (C).

Kimball, John W. Ciliated Protozoans. 14 June 2003.

Samworth, Mike. "Paramecium." Microscopy UK. 1999.

Sperling, Linda. Paramecium Genomics. 17 April 2005.


See additional information on our "Microscope" page.


The Biology of Paramecium -- Ralph Wichterman; Hardcover Book